Transport demand can be measured either by final energy consumption (transport's energy demand) or in terms of km travelled. Final energy consumption is usually measured/estimated by statistical offices on an annual basis for a specified geographical / country scope. For km travelled, personal travel can be measured in passenger-km or vehicle-km the difference being the occupancy rate in passenger per vehicle. Freight transport demand is usually given in tonne-km.
Usually four modes are distinguished: Road, rail, shipping, air. Shipping is often further distinguished in maritime and inland waterway transport.
Time series can be approximated by e.g. measuring stations on roads. There are some data sets where hourly transport demands are surveyed on specific times in the year. In these surveys (e.g. Mobilität in Deutschland), usually further data on household, cars, driving purposes etc. is given.
EU transport in figures brochure
Eurostat yearly energy consumption
For years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2008-2014
Covers energy usage in EU, Balkans, Norway, Ukraine, Turkey, but NOT Switzerland.
Transport is divided into Road/Rail/Aviation/Navigation (boat?)/Pipeline transport/Non-specified.
Eurostat high geographical resolution transport demand
European NUTS-2 (281 regions in the EU) transport data
Data is given for
- road freight transport
- air freight and passenger transport
- maritime freight and passenger transport
- rail freight and passenger transport
for European NUTS-2 regions (in Germany: Federal states). It is not always clear directly from the data tables, what the numbers refer to e.g. leaving or incoming passengers for aviation. However, some metadata is available. Also, historic vehicle stock data is available.
EU Energy Trends to 2050 for yearly energy
2016 reference scenarios for the EU
Cite on transport modelling:
"PRIMES-TAPEM, operated by ICCS/E3MLab is an econometric model for transport activity projections; it takes GEM-E3 projections (GDP, activity by sector, demographics and bilateral trade by product, and by country) as drivers, to produce transport activity projections to be fed into PRIMES-TREMOVE. The econometric exercise also includes fuel prices coming from PROMETHEUS, as well as transport net work infrastructure (length of motorways and railways), as drivers. The PRIMES-TAPEM model provides the transport activity projections for the Reference Scenario.", p. 16
Contains predictions for total passenger-km and tonne-km for each EU country up to 2050, distinguished by public transport, car/motorcycle, rail, aviation, inland navigation.
Mobility panel, Mobilitätspanel (MoP)
Carried out by KIT. Transport data for 1850 households and 3074 persons (for 2017/2018) based on weekly mobility diaries. Annual statistics freely available here:
Mobility in Cities, Mobilität in Städten
Data for 2013 is available here. The update survey (2018-2019) is currently running.
Data in high temporal resolution
Hourly vehicle count statistics for Germany
from the Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt)
Separate counts for different kinds of vehicles such as cars, trucks, buses, etc.
Data set Mobility in Germany; original: Mobilität in Deutschland (MiD)
Survey carried out by DLR Institute for Transport Research, IVT and infas in 2002, 2008 and 2017. Data is given on four different levels (A, B1, B2, B3, more info here in German). Data can be aquired via a form at the Clearingstelle Verkehr for a fee of 100€. Details increase from B1 to B3 regarding the geographical resolution (B1: Standard, B2: Regional, B3: Local).