Zurich Openmod Workshop Do-a-thon on industrial demand
Google Doc on industrial demand from do-a-thon
hotmaps project and it's gitlab account.
Direct emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases occur both from fossil fuel combustion for process heat and from chemical processes (e.g. calcination in cement manufacture). Indirect emissions come from e.g. the use of electricity.
Tackling emissions in the industrial sector involves a case-by-case analysis of each industrial sector.
Many Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) have good representations of the industrial sector, but many more detailed energy models do not.
Industrial energy use and emissions also have a knock-on effect on life cycle analysis (LCA) of technologies in the rest of the energy sector.
EU per country statistics of emissions and energy balances in each sector are available.
EPRTR : http://prtr.ec.europa.eu/#/home
Registry of poluting industrial facility
Release of poluant per year
EU-ETS registery : https://ets-registry.webgate.ec.europa.eu/
Industrial processes often need heat. This heat can be categorised by temperature, e.g. low (below 100 C), medium (100-400 C) and high (above 400 C).
Different technologies can provide heat at different temperatures.
Conventional sources of process heat are the burning of fossil fuels. For example, the flame temperature of methane is 1950 C.
Alternative sources would be:
- heat pumps (particularly for low temperatures)
- concentrated solar power (which can reach very high temperatures)
- geothermal heat
- electricity (electric furnaces, microwaves, infrared radiation, induction, electron beams, electric arc and plasma technologies up to 2000 C, see Lechtenböhmer et al, 2016)
- nuclear heat (traditional reactors can reach 400-600 C, but newer high temperature designs can go higher)
- fossil fuels with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)
- synthetic fuels (such as hydrogen, which has a flame temperature of 2111 C)
Iron and steel
Possibility of reduction of iron ore with hydrogen instead of coke being explored in HYBRIT and SALCOS projects.
Only option to reduce cement demand and CCU/S?
Concrete also absorbs CO2 from air.
Pulp and paper
Studies of reducing emissions in the industrial sector.
IPCC 5th Assessment Report on Mitigation (Working Group III) in Industry (Chapter 10)