Transport demand can be measured either by final energy consumption or in terms of km travelled. For km travelled, personal travel is measured in passenger-km and freight in tonne-km.
Mode is usually distinguished, i.e. road/rail/river/air/sea.
Time series can be approximated by e.g. measuring stations on roads.
Eurostat yearly energy consumption
For years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2008-2014
Covers energy usage in EU, Balkans, Norway, Ukraine, Turkey, but NOT Switzerland.
Transport is divided into Road/Rail/Aviation/Navigation (boat?)/Pipeline transport/Non-specified.
EU Energy Trends to 2050 for yearly energy
Contains predictions for total passenger-km and tonne-km for each EU country up to 2050, distinguished by public transport, car/motorcycle, rail, aviation, inland navigation.
Hourly vehicle count statistics for Germany
from the Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt)
Separate counts for different kinds of vehicles such as cars, trucks, buses, etc.